Equine Infectious Diseases and Emergency Response
The Kentucky Office of State
Veterinarian (OSV) continues
to monitor an outbreak of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy affecting horses at Hawthorne Race Course in Illinois. Recent media reports state a horse in Hawthorne’s Barn 6 developed a fever during the last week of December and subsequently tested PCR positive for Equine Herpes Virus Type 1 (EHV-1). The animal’s illness and associated diagnostic testing provide evidence that transmissible EHV-1 likely continues to be prevalent in the Hawthorne environment. This evidence and threat of transmission of the causative agent, coupled with environmental and epidemiological factors, has lead Kentucky State Veterinarian Dr. Robert Stout to conclude that horses currently or recently stabled at Hawthorne pose a significant risk of exposure to this highly communicable disease. Kentucky Administrative Regulations governing the entry of horses into the Commonwealth prohibits the entry of equine having known exposure to a communicable disease. Therefore, horses currently stabled and horses stabled during the past 30 days at Hawthorne are ineligible for traveling interstate into Kentucky without approval from Kentucky Department of Agriculture.
Additionally, with the Illinois Department of Agriculture’s previously imposed quarantine scheduled for release next week (January 9, 2013), effective immediately, the KY OSV requires that all horses seeking entry into Kentucky from Illinois be approved by the KY State Veterinarian’s Office. The required entry permit should be applied for by the attending veterinarian in writing (fax to 502/564-7852) and must include each animal’s name, age, sex, breed, origin, destination, defined purpose of entry, and the IL Certificate of Veterinary Inspection (CVI) document number that will be issued. The request must also include a statement that the horse(s) has not been on Hawthorne’s grounds during the preceding 30 days. Upon approval, the KY Entry Permit Number should be recorded on the CVI and a copy of the permit attached to the CVI during transportation.
Furthermore, due to the identified threat and elevated risk to our racing population, the KY OSV directive to Kentucky’s race tracks and training centers continues to be horses that have been at Hawthorne during the fall meet should be denied entry onto any Kentucky track or training center with exception given only to those horses that have completed a supervised quarantine off the grounds, have tested negative for EHV-1 and have been released from restrictions imposed by the Kentucky Office of State Veterinarian. In these instances, the facility’s management, stabling office or racing secretary should have supporting documentation that the routine entry requirements and vaccination requirements have been met. For those horses completing their post departure quarantine outside of Kentucky, we recommend that each animal be considered individually. We will be happy to assist in reviewing each animal’s health status and eligibility for entry if desired.
EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY – ALL HORSES ENTERING KENTUCKY FROM ILLINOIS MUST HAVE AN ENTRY PERMIT ISSUED BY THE KY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. The permit request shall be in writing (fax to 502/564-7852) and include all pertinent information. Our goal will be to receive, review, determine eligibility, and to approve or deny the request by the first workday following receipt.
Updated 10/29 - HORSES CURRENTLYOR RECENTLY STABLED AT HAWTHORNE SHALL NOT BE GRANTED ACCESS TO KENTUCKY RACE TRACKS (or Training Centers) – Unless specifically With exception of horses approved by the Kentucky State Veterinarian.
These restrictions and directives will remain in effect until further notice.
Based on the most recent data and information, the opinion of the KY State Veterinarians Office continues to be that horses residing at Hawthorne – or horses that have recently been on those grounds, do present an elevated risk of disease introduction/transmission. With this conclusion, we are continuing to disallow any horse from entering a Kentucky race track that originates from Hawthorne (horses are now not being permitted to depart the grounds) or horses which have been on the grounds of Hawthorne for any reason (racing, training, laying over etc.) during the 28 days immediately preceding their arrival at a Kentucky track. We are aware and have been monitoring horses that had departed Hawthorne for KY tracks prior to the restriction disallowing their entry being implemented on Monday, October 15 with no evidence of illness having been detected in these horses and they are permitted entry. Horses in this same category traveling to private farms should be isolated and closely monitored for a minimum of 28 days. Additionally, tracks need to take extra precautions to insure that all horses coming onto their grounds meet the health requirements prescribed by the Kentucky Office of State Veterinarian and to also inquire from the trainer responsible for the horses what their recent travel history has been.
This is an evolving disease outbreak with dynamic factors that necessitate our full awareness. With our mitigating strategies employed to protect Kentucky’s racing industry adjusted as warranted, individuals shipping to KY race tracks should check with the track prior to shipping for the most recent entry requirements.
1) Results of testing conducted at the University of Kentucky's Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UK VDL), confirms the diagnosis of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy (i.e. neurologic herpes) as the illness described.
2) Additional cases are continuing to develop. All confirmed and suspected cases reported to date are reported to have occurred in one barn.
Through communications with management at Hawthorne, as well as with Dr. Dawn Folker (IL Racing Commission veterinarian responsible for management of the outbreak) we have learned the following:
1) Horses remaining in the affected barn are quarantined and the barn's population (70 horses) is being sampled today with those samples being sent to UK VDL for testing.
2) Remaining population of horses at Hawthorne are being monitored for evidence of illness
3) Heightened biosecurity practices have been implemented that includes cleaning and disinfecting of all common areas and equipment.
A more detailed description of the specific actions being taken at Hawthorne can be obtained by contacting Hawthorne Race Course.
CURRENT KY STATUS/POSITION:
We appreciate the efforts that have been put forth by Hawthorne's management, Chicago area horsemen, and the disease management direction given by Dr. Folker and remain hopeful the strategies and actions implemented to this point will be effective in containing the virus to the single barn while minimizing the impact on Hawthorne's racing.
When reviewing the information provided, the evidence supports virus has recently, and may be continuing to circulate in at least one barn at Hawthorne. Though increased biosecurity has now been implemented that will aide in mitigating risk of further transmission, our opinion is that additional time is needed before concluding the virus is contained to the single barn.
Based on these findings and concerns, we are continuing with the direction issued this past Monday stipulating horses originating from Hawthorne (or having recently been on Hawthorne's grounds) not be allowed entry onto a Kentucky race track until a period of 21 days absence from Hawthorne has occurred. This includes disallowing horses to depart KY for Hawthorne with expectation of returning to a Kentucky track until the specified time period has been met.
As illustrated above, we are at this time considering the affected premises to be the entirety of Hawthorne Race Course. We will continue to monitor the event daily and adjust our strategies as warranted.
EXAMPLES OF PAST EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
- Illinois Eva Outbreak At Arlington Race Track
- Australia Morbillivirus
- Vesicular Stomatitis In The Western States
- 1998 CEM Like Organism Found In The Nurse Mare Population
- 1999 - 2001 Monitoring West Nile Virus Occurrence
- 2001 - Foot and Mouth Disease Surveillance
- 2001 - Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome in Kentucky
2011 ARKANSAS EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA) OUTBREAK
EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM)2011 WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK OVERVIEW
USDA Incident Information - Includes Weekly Situation Reports showing suspect and confirmed cases by states and other USDA Information.
Frequently Asked Questions about EHV/EHM for Horse Owners from American Association of Equine Practitioners
EHV/EHM Brochure for Horse Owners USDA 2009 Publication
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has recieved the final report on this outbreak. No new cases and no new premises have been affected.
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
- 52 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (32 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 20 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 32 Confirmed EHM Cases (26 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 6 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 12 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed.
Key Information - TOTALS:
Horses categorized in EHV-1 or EHM suspect categories or as EHV-1confirmed in previous reports may change categories based on test results or development of additional clinical signs. *secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 31 May 2011
- 47 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (33 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 14 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 28 Confirmed EHM Cases (25 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 3 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 11 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed. Click here for map of confirmed deaths.
Key Information - TOTALS:
*secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 23 May 2011
2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 23 May 2011KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 18 May 2011
2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 18 May 2011KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 16 May 2011 Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy Outbreak - Rusty Ford
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has received reports of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHV-1) affecting horses in multiple western states and have verified the disease being diagnosed in Colorado. The outbreak reportedly traces to horses thatattended the National Cutting Horse Association's (NCHA) Western National Championships in Ogden, Utah. The event took place April 30 ? May 8, 2011. Horses from multiple states were at the event.
After contacting the NCHA and the KY Quarter Horse Association we have found no evidence that Kentucky horses were present at this event nor has there been anyindication of Kentucky horses being affected. In light of this recent disease outbreak, theKentucky State Veterinarians Office encourages exhibitors to take extra caution to protect their horses from EHV-1 and other communicable disease.
- Consult your veterinarian about potential disease threats and steps you can take to mitigate any identified threat.?
- Available vaccines make no label claim to prevent the myeloencephalitic form of EHV-1 infection. Consult your veterinarian about any potential benefit vaccinating horses against equine herpes myeloencephalogathy (EHV-1). Recentexperiences combating outbreaks of neurologic herpes caused by EHV-1 in Kentuckysupports theanecdotal evidence suggesting some efficacyminimizing the impact of the disease.
- Observe horses daily for evidence of illness that may include elevated body temperature.
- Prevent your horses from having unnecessary contact with other horses at shows: do not
allow them to drink from a common water source or eat from shared buckets, minimize sharing of
equipment such as lead lines, and disinfect any equipment that is shared.?
2011 West Nile - Summary Hisorical Yearly Maps Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) Surveillance HISTORICALLY:The last reported case of EEE affecting a horse in Kentucky was in 1995 when an 8 year old mare in Western Kentucky was euthanized after becoming recumbent. The diagnosis of EEE having affected this unvaccinated mare was based on virus being isolated from brain tissue submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory.
SURVEILLANCE:The Departments of Agriculture and Public Health have included Eastern equine encephalitis in our arbovirus surveillance. Mosquitoes being screened for West Nile virus are also tested for Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In addition, equine suspected of having contracted an encephalitic condition are being tested for West Nile and when warranted the sample is forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for EEE screening.
ACTION: At this time our surveillance has not produced any evidence suggesting EEE virus is prevalent in Kentucky. We are continuing to closely monitor the migration of the virus and are in communication with our counterparts in states that have demonstrated a higher than usual prevalence of the virus.
West Nile Virus - 2011 Equine
History and Guidelines of Program
In 1974 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture implemented a program to determine the occurrence of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) among Kentucky's equine population. Testing conducted during the late 1970's and into the 1980's annually identified between 120 and 150 animals as affected with EIA.During the mid 80's and throughout the 90's an increased amount of attention was placed on stopping the spread of EIA amongst Kentucky's equine population. Today in excess of 100,000 samples are tested annually with fewer than 5 animals being identified as affected with EIA. Late in 2002 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture for the first time since its' inception amended the EIA Testing requirement from six (6) months to twelve (12) months for equine being offered for sale or changing ownership. FOR THE PURPOSE OF MEETING STATE TESTING REQUIREMENTS THE KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REQUIRES THAT THE ANIMALS BE TESTED USING AN OFFICIAL TEST METHOD CONDUCTED BY A LABORATORY APPROVED BY THE USDA TO CONDUCT EIA TESTING.
The Kentucky State Board of Agriculture recognizes both the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the ELISA as official tests. When time permits, we encourage the use of the AGID test. Though not often, we have on occasion seen instances of "false positives" being reported when using the ELISA test. In addition the ELISA tests are not always recognized by some states as "official" and are not recognized as "official" tests for the purpose of exporting animals from the United States. In the event that an ELISA test is used for the interstate movement of an animal, we would encourage you to contact the state of destination to insure that the test is recognized.
Sale and Exhibition
(1) Sale. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for sale, traded, given away, leased, or moved for the purpose of change of ownership shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months. Equine which are offered for sale at approved auction markets without proof of a negative test for EIA within the previous twelve (12) months shall have a blood sample drawn at the market by the approved market veterinarian at the seller's expense.
(2) Exhibition. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for exhibition (i.e., entry into fairgrounds, livestock show grounds, public boarding stables, trail rides, racing, etc.) shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months.
|YEAR||No Test||POS ANIMAL||Infect|
Last Updated: 1/17/2012
|MONTH||Tot Tst||KDA Prvt||GVL Tst||Mrkt/Surv Tests||Prvt Test||Tot POS||Mrkt Pos||Prvt Pos|
|Last Updated On: January 17, 2012|
During the spring of 1984 a virus identified by the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science as Equine Arteritis Virus was threatening Kentucky's thoroughbred population. As a result of the continued spread of the virus amongst Central Kentucky's thoroughbred farms, all breeding of thoroughbred horses was ordered stopped during the early summer months by The Kentucky Department of Agriculture.
The Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science, worked throughout the fall and winter to determine the extent of the recent outbreak. Prior to the 1985 breeding season all thoroughbred stallions were tested under the supervision of the Department. All stallions found to be positive to the serology test were quarantined while additional testing was conducted to determine if they in fact were carrier's of the arteritis virus.
After a short delay, non-affected stallions were permitted to begin breeding in 1985. Stallions which were not vaccinated against the virus were monitored by serology testing every 14 days throughout the course of the breeding season to insure that the virus was not being spread. Stallions which were found to be shedding arteritis virus were permitted to return to breeding midway through the '85 breeding season. These stallions were heavily regulated by the Department of Agriculture to insure that they were bred only to qualified mares which were approved to be bred by the State Veterinarian's Office while following a stringent post breeding protocol consisting of isolation and quarantine.
Today there are no known thoroughbred shedding stallions standing at stud in Kentucky. The Department of Agriculture requires that all thoroughbred stallions standing at stud in Kentucky be vaccinated annually against Equine Arteritis Virus. Stallions which are standing their first season in Kentucky are required to be tested prior to vaccination in order to determine that they are not affected with the arteritis virus. As of today the only commercially approved vaccine for use is manufactured by Fort Dodge Laboratories and is called ARVAC?.
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the Jockey Club maintains a stallion roster to insure that all stallions standing in Kentucky are properly vaccinated.
KY's EVA Regulation
Standing at Stud in Kentucky
EVAVaccinations - Thoroughbred Stallion Roster
Last Updated 12/31/2011
2013 Occurrences of Equine Herpes Virus Type-1
Kentucky's Perspective and Position Updated: March 7, 2013
Equine Herpes Virus Type 1 (EHV-1) is described to be a highly contagious pathogen that is ubiquitous in horse populations throughout the world. Infections in horses can result in a variety of ailments that include respiratory disease, abortions, neonatal deaths and the neurologic disease termed Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Recently, alerts of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy being diagnosed in multiple states have been issued. States having cases of EHM diagnosed in recent months include California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, Tennessee and Utah. Horses of different breeds and representing vastly different disciplines and activity have been affected.
The apparent increased frequency of disease and severity of symptoms being seen has lead Kentucky State Veterinarian Robert Stout to conclude extra precaution needs to be initiated and implemented to help mitigate the associated risk. We are directing Kentucky facility managers and the managers of shows/exhibitions planned to be held in Kentucky to immediately review their biosecurity practices and if needed elevate their biosecurity plan to minimize opportunity of horses having direct or indirect contact with one another. Indirect contact would include common water and feed sources as well as shared equipment and common areas. The goal of a biosecurity plan is to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among individuals. The components of a successful program will include cooperation of management, facility layout, decontamination, and when applicable immunization. Each of these factors directly affects the success or failure of the program. A copy of the American Association of Equine Practitioners biosecurity guidelines and EHV resources can be found at www.aaep.org/ehv_resources.htm. Our office is happy to assist facilities, show management and event veterinarians in evaluating their individual plans and when a need is identified, assist in adapting the plans.
As an additional preventive measure, we encourage horsemen to consult their veterinarians and after evaluating their animal's vaccination status consider if there is need or benefit to stimulating an immune response by vaccinating against EHV-1. We acknowledge the available vaccines' labels make no claim to prevent neurologic disease; but based on our experience managing outbreaks of this disease, and in consultation with infectious disease experts and research scientist, we continue to be of the opinion the vaccine does have a meaningful level of efficacy and may aide in reducing the impact of a disease incident.
In response to the identified increased risk, we have and will continue to operate with elevated regulatory surveillance and equine health inspection activity at events in Kentucky. Exhibitors can expedite their passage through our inspection points by having their health documents organized and horses loaded in a manner that will allow visual inspection. In addition to the surveillance and inspection activity we will be working closely with show managers and veterinarians to insure immediate notification and quick response to any suspected communicable disease.
- Equine Infectious Diseases and Emergency Response
- Importing Mares and Stallions into Kentucky From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries
- Equine export stats
- Equine Disease Outbreaks and Emergency Responses
- West Nile Equine Summary Information
- Equine Infectious Anemia
- Equine Viral Arteritis
- Equine Herpes Virus Type-1
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