Equine Infectious Diseases and Emergency Response
EXAMPLES OF PAST EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
- Illinois Eva Outbreak At Arlington Race Track
- Australia Morbillivirus
- Vesicular Stomatitis In The Western States
- 1998 CEM Like Organism Found In The Nurse Mare Population
- 1999 - 2001 Monitoring West Nile Virus Occurrence
- 2001 - Foot and Mouth Disease Surveillance
- 2001 - Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome in Kentucky
2011 ARKANSAS EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA) OUTBREAK
EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM)2011 WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK OVERVIEW
USDA Incident Information - Includes Weekly Situation Reports showing suspect and confirmed cases by states and other USDA Information.
Frequently Asked Questions about EHV/EHM for Horse Owners from American Association of Equine Practitioners
EHV/EHM Brochure for Horse Owners USDA 2009 Publication
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has recieved the final report on this outbreak. No new cases and no new premises have been affected.
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
- 52 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (32 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 20 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 32 Confirmed EHM Cases (26 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 6 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 12 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed.
Key Information - TOTALS:
Horses categorized in EHV-1 or EHM suspect categories or as EHV-1confirmed in previous reports may change categories based on test results or development of additional clinical signs. *secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.
KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 31 May 2011
- 47 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (33 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 14 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 28 Confirmed EHM Cases (25 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 3 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
- 11 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed. Click here for map of confirmed deaths.
Key Information - TOTALS:
*secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 23 May 2011
2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 23 May 2011KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 18 May 2011
2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 18 May 2011KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 16 May 2011 Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy Outbreak - Rusty Ford
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has received reports of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHV-1) affecting horses in multiple western states and have verified the disease being diagnosed in Colorado. The outbreak reportedly traces to horses thatattended the National Cutting Horse Association's (NCHA) Western National Championships in Ogden, Utah. The event took place April 30 ? May 8, 2011. Horses from multiple states were at the event.
After contacting the NCHA and the KY Quarter Horse Association we have found no evidence that Kentucky horses were present at this event nor has there been anyindication of Kentucky horses being affected. In light of this recent disease outbreak, theKentucky State Veterinarians Office encourages exhibitors to take extra caution to protect their horses from EHV-1 and other communicable disease.
- Consult your veterinarian about potential disease threats and steps you can take to mitigate any identified threat.?
- Available vaccines make no label claim to prevent the myeloencephalitic form of EHV-1 infection. Consult your veterinarian about any potential benefit vaccinating horses against equine herpes myeloencephalogathy (EHV-1). Recentexperiences combating outbreaks of neurologic herpes caused by EHV-1 in Kentuckysupports theanecdotal evidence suggesting some efficacyminimizing the impact of the disease.
- Observe horses daily for evidence of illness that may include elevated body temperature.
- Prevent your horses from having unnecessary contact with other horses at shows: do not
allow them to drink from a common water source or eat from shared buckets, minimize sharing of
equipment such as lead lines, and disinfect any equipment that is shared.?
2016 KY's Equine West Nile Virus - Updated 09/23/2016
4 Case(s) Reported - Map of affected counties
4 - Survived / 0 - Euthanized
Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status:
4 Not Vaccinated
Affected Counties: Equine in 3 of Kentucky's 120 Counties
Barren (1), Bourbon (1), Hart (1), Hardin (1)
2015 KY's Equine West Nile Virus - Updated 10/09/2015
8 Case(s) Reported - Map of affected counties
8 - Survived / 0 - Euthanized
Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status:
7 Not Vaccinated - 1 Vaccination Unknown/Pending
Affected Counties: Equine in 7 of Kentucky's 120 Counties
Bourbon (1), Crittenden (1), Fayette (1), Jefferson (1)
Montgomery (1), Nelson (2), Shelby (1)
Scroll Down for Annual Summary Reports and Geographic Maps
Eastern Equine Encephalitis is infrequently diagnosed in Kentucky equine.
The last reported cases of EEE affecting horses in Kentucky occured in 2013 (a 10yo, TWH, Non-Vaccinated gelding in Logan County and a second case occured in a 17yo QH mare in Carlisle County), Both horses had no known vaccinationin history and each animal expired. Prior to these cases, the most recent diagnosis was in 2008 (6mo Paint filly, Non-Vaccinated), and in 1995 (an 8yr female, Western KY, Not-Vaccinated)
The American Association of Equine Practitioners web page includes information describing this disease and it can be found at http://www.aaep.org/eee_wee.htm.
SURVEILLANCE:The Departments of Agriculture and Public Health have included Eastern equine encephalitis in our arbovirus surveillance. Mosquitoes being screened for West Nile virus are also tested for Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In addition, equine suspected of having contracted an encephalitic condition are being tested for West Nile and when warranted the sample is forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for EEE screening.
0 Eastern Encephalitis Cases
- Animal's Disposition - 8 Alive / 0 Euthanized
- Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 7 Non-Vaccinated+ 1 Unlikely Vacc
Affected Equine in 7 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Bourbon (1), Crittenden (1), Fayette (1), Jefferson (1), Montgomery (1), Nelson (2), Shelby (1)
West Nile Virus - 2014 Equine 4 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases on 4 Premises
0 Eastern Encephalitis Cases
- Animal's Disposition - 1 Alive / 3 Euthanized
- Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 3 Non-Vaccinated+ 1 Unlikely Vacc
Affected Equine in 4 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Allen (1), Calloway (1), Marion (1), Marshall (1)
West Nile Virus - 2013 Equine 12 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases on 12 Premises
+ 2 Eastern Encephalitis Cases on 2 premises
- Animal's Disposition - 10 Alive / 2 Euthanized
- Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 12 Non-Vaccinated
Affected Equine in 10 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Calloway (1), Christian (2), Edmonson (1) Graves (2), Hopkins (1), Lincoln (1), Todd (1), Trigg 1), Union (1), Warren (1)
West Nile Virus - 2012 Equine 13 Confirmed Equine West Nile Case on 11 Premises
West Nile Virus - 2011 Equine
September 11, 2015
Kentucky Reports Four Horses in Marshall County to be EIA Positive
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is reporting today that during the past two weeks, four (4) horses in Western Kentucky’s Marshall County have tested positive for detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA). These are the first Kentucky horses found positive for the viral disease since 2007. The initial horse was found positive as a result of testing performed by a private veterinarian, with the remaining three (3) cases discovered through testing conducted as part of the KDA investigation. Each of the horses were confirmed positive by additional testing and have since been humanely destroyed and buried. Seven (7) additional ‘cohorts’ tested negative on the initial testing. These seven remain under quarantine and will be periodically sampled during the next 60 days.
Though the route of transmission cannot be definitively determined, iatronic transmission has not been ruled out. The fact that one group of seven horses were commingled in a confined location the past 10 months with no evidence of transmission, minimizes chance of natural transmission having occurred.
The horses testing positive are described to be pleasure riding horses that have resided on one of two farms for several years and range in age from six to twenty-one years of age. When the positive horses were evaluated by KDA, they were found to be asymptomatic and in good body condition. The older horses were all reported to have been purchased through livestock markets, and as such would have been tested negative at the time of purchase. These pleasure horses have not regularly participated in practices that required they be routinely tested, and are defined as representing the ‘untested population’.
More information about Kentucky’s EIA Surveillance and Control Program that includes annual testing stats can be found at www.kyagr.com/statevet/equine-infectious-diseases.html.
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture will provide updates as new information becomes available.
Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is an infectious viral disease affecting members of the horse family - for more information on this disease, please refer to the USDA EIA FACTSHEET.
History and Guidelines of Program
In 1974 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture implemented a program to determine the occurrence of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) among Kentucky's equine population. Testing conducted during the late 1970's and into the 1980's annually identified between 120 and 150 animals as affected with EIA.During the mid 80's and throughout the 90's an increased amount of attention was placed on stopping the spread of EIA amongst Kentucky's equine population. Today in excess of 100,000 samples are tested annually with fewer than 5 animals being identified as affected with EIA. Late in 2002 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture for the first time since its' inception amended the EIA Testing requirement from six (6) months to twelve (12) months for equine being offered for sale or changing ownership. FOR THE PURPOSE OF MEETING STATE TESTING REQUIREMENTS THE KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REQUIRES THAT THE ANIMALS BE TESTED USING AN OFFICIAL TEST METHOD CONDUCTED BY A LABORATORY APPROVED BY THE USDA TO CONDUCT EIA TESTING.
The Kentucky State Board of Agriculture recognizes both the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the ELISA as official tests. When time permits, we encourage the use of the AGID test. Though not often, we have on occasion seen instances of "false positives" being reported when using the ELISA test. In addition the ELISA tests are not always recognized by some states as "official" and are not recognized as "official" tests for the purpose of exporting animals from the United States. In the event that an ELISA test is used for the interstate movement of an animal, we would encourage you to contact the state of destination to insure that the test is recognized.
Sale and Exhibition
(1) Sale. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for sale, traded, given away, leased, or moved for the purpose of change of ownership shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months. Equine which are offered for sale at approved auction markets without proof of a negative test for EIA within the previous twelve (12) months shall have a blood sample drawn at the market by the approved market veterinarian at the seller's expense.
(2) Exhibition. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for exhibition (i.e., entry into fairgrounds, livestock show grounds, public boarding stables, trail rides, racing, etc.) shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months.
|YEAR||No Test||POS ANIMAL||Infect|
Last Updated: 2/01/2016
2015 Monthly Testing
** 3 Positive horses identified (exposed to July Horse)
through epidemiology testing
During the spring of 1984 a virus identified by the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science as Equine Arteritis Virus was threatening Kentucky's thoroughbred population. As a result of the continued spread of the virus amongst Central Kentucky's thoroughbred farms, all breeding of thoroughbred horses was ordered stopped during the early summer months by The Kentucky Department of Agriculture.
The Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science, worked throughout the fall and winter to determine the extent of the recent outbreak. Prior to the 1985 breeding season all thoroughbred stallions were tested under the supervision of the Department. All stallions found to be positive to the serology test were quarantined while additional testing was conducted to determine if they in fact were carrier's of the arteritis virus.
After a short delay, non-affected stallions were permitted to begin breeding in 1985. Stallions which were not vaccinated against the virus were monitored by serology testing every 14 days throughout the course of the breeding season to insure that the virus was not being spread. Stallions which were found to be shedding arteritis virus were permitted to return to breeding midway through the '85 breeding season. These stallions were heavily regulated by the Department of Agriculture to insure that they were bred only to qualified mares which were approved to be bred by the State Veterinarian's Office while following a stringent post breeding protocol consisting of isolation and quarantine.
Today there are no known thoroughbred shedding stallions standing at stud in Kentucky. The Department of Agriculture requires that all thoroughbred stallions standing at stud in Kentucky be vaccinated annually against Equine Arteritis Virus. Stallions which are standing their first season in Kentucky are required to be tested prior to vaccination in order to determine that they are not affected with the arteritis virus. As of today the only commercially approved vaccine for use is manufactured by Fort Dodge Laboratories and is called ARVAC?.
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the Jockey Club maintains a stallion roster to insure that all stallions standing in Kentucky are properly vaccinated.
KY's EVA Regulation
Standing at Stud in Kentucky
EVAVaccinations - Thoroughbred Stallion Roster
Last Updated 2/01/2016
2013 Occurrences of Equine Herpes Virus Type-1
Kentucky's Perspective and Position Updated: March 7, 2013
Equine Herpes Virus Type 1 (EHV-1) is described to be a highly contagious pathogen that is ubiquitous in horse populations throughout the world. Infections in horses can result in a variety of ailments that include respiratory disease, abortions, neonatal deaths and the neurologic disease termed Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Recently, alerts of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy being diagnosed in multiple states have been issued. States having cases of EHM diagnosed in recent months include California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, Tennessee and Utah. Horses of different breeds and representing vastly different disciplines and activity have been affected.
The apparent increased frequency of disease and severity of symptoms being seen has lead Kentucky State Veterinarian Robert Stout to conclude extra precaution needs to be initiated and implemented to help mitigate the associated risk. We are directing Kentucky facility managers and the managers of shows/exhibitions planned to be held in Kentucky to immediately review their biosecurity practices and if needed elevate their biosecurity plan to minimize opportunity of horses having direct or indirect contact with one another. Indirect contact would include common water and feed sources as well as shared equipment and common areas. The goal of a biosecurity plan is to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among individuals. The components of a successful program will include cooperation of management, facility layout, decontamination, and when applicable immunization. Each of these factors directly affects the success or failure of the program. A copy of the American Association of Equine Practitioners biosecurity guidelines and EHV resources can be found at www.aaep.org/ehv_resources.htm. Our office is happy to assist facilities, show management and event veterinarians in evaluating their individual plans and when a need is identified, assist in adapting the plans.
As an additional preventive measure, we encourage horsemen to consult their veterinarians and after evaluating their animal's vaccination status consider if there is need or benefit to stimulating an immune response by vaccinating against EHV-1. We acknowledge the available vaccines' labels make no claim to prevent neurologic disease; but based on our experience managing outbreaks of this disease, and in consultation with infectious disease experts and research scientist, we continue to be of the opinion the vaccine does have a meaningful level of efficacy and may aide in reducing the impact of a disease incident.
In response to the identified increased risk, we have and will continue to operate with elevated regulatory surveillance and equine health inspection activity at events in Kentucky. Exhibitors can expedite their passage through our inspection points by having their health documents organized and horses loaded in a manner that will allow visual inspection. In addition to the surveillance and inspection activity we will be working closely with show managers and veterinarians to insure immediate notification and quick response to any suspected communicable disease.
- Equine Infectious Diseases and Emergency Response
- Importing Mares and Stallions into Kentucky From Contagious Equine Metritis-Affected Countries
- Equine export stats
- Equine Disease Outbreaks and Emergency Responses
- West Nile / EEE Summary Information
- Equine Infectious Anemia
- Equine Viral Arteritis
- Equine Herpes Virus Type-1
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