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Equine Infectious Diseases and Emergency Response

Equine

 

Equine Disease Outbreaks and Emergency Responses

As would be expected, the Kentucky Department of Agriculture is a leader among other states when situations occur which threaten the equine industry. Because of this leadership role, it is our responsibility to react promptly and with competence to threatening situations. We maintain an active advisory committee to assist the State Veterinarian and the Board of Agriculture in making informed decisions. This committee is comprised of some of the Nation's most respected practicing veterinarian's, researchers, scientist and industry leaders. As has been demonstrated numerous times during the past few years the Kentucky Department of Agriculture is capable of developing and implementing emergency programs and, when necessary promulgating emergency regulations, which have proven to be most effective in protecting Kentucky's vast equine population from threatening diseases. Because of the economic significance Kentucky's equine industry has in the State, we have over the years developed systematic means that enable us to accurately monitor disease situations in other states and countries. Information regarding threatening situations is gathered in a timely manner, reviewed and when warranted disseminated to Kentucky's equine industry and practicing veterinarians. The Kentucky Department of Agriculture works closely with the Kentucky Association of Equine Practitioners and the Kentucky Veterinary Medical Association to insure that our practicing veterinarians are apprised of all threatening situations.

    EXAMPLES OF PAST EMERGENCY PROGRAMS
  • Illinois Eva Outbreak At Arlington Race Track
  • Australia Morbillivirus
  • Vesicular Stomatitis In The Western States
  • 1998 CEM Like Organism Found In The Nurse Mare Population
  • 1999 - 2001 Monitoring West Nile Virus Occurrence
  • 2001 - Foot and Mouth Disease Surveillance
  • 2001 - Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome in Kentucky
Past Responses: 2011 Outbreak Overview

2011 ARKANSAS EQUINE INFECTIOUS ANEMIA (EIA) OUTBREAK

EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM)2011 WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK OVERVIEW

Click for outbreak map

Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) & EHV-1 Resources

USDA Incident Information - Includes Weekly Situation Reports showing suspect and confirmed cases by states and other USDA Information.

Frequently Asked Questions about EHV/EHM for Horse Owners from American Association of Equine Practitioners

EHV/EHM Brochure for Horse Owners USDA 2009 Publication

KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has recieved the final report on this outbreak.  No new cases and no new premises have been affected.

    KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 6 June 2011
    Key Information - TOTALS:
  • 52 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (32 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 20 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
  • 32 Confirmed EHM Cases (26 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 6 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
  • 12 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed.

Horses categorized in EHV-1 or EHM suspect categories or as EHV-1confirmed in previous reports may change categories based on test results or development of additional clinical signs. *secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.

    KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 31 May 2011
    Key Information - TOTALS:
  • 47 Confirmed EHV-1 Cases (33 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 14 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
  • 28 Confirmed EHM Cases (25 primary exposure which occurred at show in Ogden, UT + 3 secondary or tertiary exposure*)
  • 11 Deaths attributed to EHV/EHM Outbreak - Not all cases confirmed. Click here for map of confirmed deaths.

*secondary or tertiary horses are those which have been exposed to horses which were exposed at the Ogden, UT show.

KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 23 May 2011

2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 23 May 2011

KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 18 May 2011

2011 EQUINE HERPES MYELOENCEPHALOPATHY (EHM) WESTERN STATES OUTBREAK : KENTUCKY PESPECTIVE 18 May 2011

KENTUCKY DEPT AGR UPDATE : 16 May 2011 Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy Outbreak - Rusty Ford
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture has received reports of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHV-1) affecting horses in multiple western states and have verified the disease being diagnosed in Colorado.  The outbreak reportedly traces to horses thatattended the National Cutting Horse Association's (NCHA) Western National Championships in Ogden, Utah. The event took place April 30 ? May 8, 2011. Horses from multiple states were at the event.

After contacting the NCHA and the KY Quarter Horse Association we have found no evidence that Kentucky horses were present at this event nor has there been anyindication of Kentucky horses being affected. In light of this recent disease outbreak, theKentucky State Veterinarians Office encourages exhibitors to take extra caution to protect their horses from EHV-1 and other communicable disease.

  • Consult your veterinarian about potential disease threats and steps you can take to mitigate any identified threat.?
  • Available vaccines make no label claim to prevent the myeloencephalitic form of EHV-1 infection. Consult your veterinarian about any potential benefit vaccinating horses against equine herpes myeloencephalogathy (EHV-1). Recentexperiences combating outbreaks of neurologic herpes caused by EHV-1 in Kentuckysupports theanecdotal evidence suggesting some efficacyminimizing the impact of the disease.
  • Observe horses daily for evidence of illness that may include elevated body temperature.
  • Prevent your horses from having unnecessary contact with other horses at shows: do not allow them to drink from a common water source or eat from shared buckets, minimize sharing of equipment such as lead lines, and disinfect any equipment that is shared.?

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2016 West Nile and Eastern Encephalitis - Equine Case Summary

2016 KY's Equine West Nile Virus - Updated 11/11//2016
7   Case(s) Reported - Map of affected counties

Animal's Disposition:
7 - Survived / 0 - Euthanized

Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status:
7 Not Vaccinated

Affected Counties: Equine in 7 of Kentucky's 120 Counties

Barren (1), Bourbon (1), Hart (1), Hardin (1)
Logan (1), Powell (1), Union (1)

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2015 KY's Equine West Nile Virus - Updated 10/09/2015
8   Case(s) Reported - Map of affected counties

Animal's Disposition:
8 - Survived / 0 - Euthanized

Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status:
7 Not Vaccinated - 1 Vaccination Unknown/Pending

Affected Counties: Equine in 7 of Kentucky's 120 Counties

Bourbon (1), Crittenden (1), Fayette (1), Jefferson (1)
Montgomery (1), Nelson (2), Shelby (1)


Scroll Down for Annual Summary Reports and Geographic Maps



Eastern Equine Encephalitis is infrequently diagnosed in Kentucky equine.

The last reported cases of EEE affecting horses in Kentucky occured in 2013 (a 10yo, TWH, Non-Vaccinated gelding in Logan County and a second case occured in a 17yo QH mare in Carlisle County), Both horses had no known vaccinationin history and each animal expired.  Prior to these cases, the most recent  diagnosis was in 2008 (6mo Paint filly, Non-Vaccinated), and in 1995 (an 8yr female, Western KY, Not-Vaccinated)
The American Association of Equine Practitioners web page includes information describing this disease and it can be found at http://www.aaep.org/eee_wee.htm.
SURVEILLANCE:The Departments of Agriculture and Public Health have included Eastern equine encephalitis in our arbovirus surveillance. Mosquitoes being screened for West Nile virus are also tested for Eastern equine encephalitis virus. In addition, equine suspected of having contracted an encephalitic condition are being tested for West Nile and when warranted the sample is forwarded to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for EEE screening.

West Nile Annual Summary Reports - Equine Cases
West Nile Virus - 2015 Equine 8 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases on 8 Premises

0 Eastern Encephalitis Cases

  • Animal's Disposition - 8 Alive / 0 Euthanized
  • Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 7 Non-Vaccinated+ 1 Unlikely Vacc
    Affected Equine in 7 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Bourbon (1), Crittenden (1), Fayette (1), Jefferson (1), Montgomery (1), Nelson (2), Shelby (1)

 

West Nile Virus - 2014 Equine 4 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases on 4 Premises

0 Eastern Encephalitis Cases

  • Animal's Disposition - 1 Alive / 3 Euthanized
  • Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 3 Non-Vaccinated+ 1 Unlikely Vacc
    Affected Equine in 4 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Allen (1), Calloway (1),  Marion (1), Marshall (1)

 

West Nile Virus - 2013 Equine 12 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases on 12 Premises

+ 2 Eastern Encephalitis Cases on 2 premises

  • Animal's Disposition - 10 Alive / 2 Euthanized
  • Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 12 Non-Vaccinated
    Affected Equine in 10 of Kentucky's 120 Counties: Calloway (1), Christian (2), Edmonson (1) Graves (2), Hopkins (1), Lincoln (1), Todd (1), Trigg 1), Union (1), Warren (1)



West Nile Virus - 2012 Equine 13 Confirmed Equine West Nile Case on 11 Premises

  • Animal's Disposition - 6 Alive, 7 Euthanized
  • Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 9 Not Vaccinated, 3 Partially Vaccinated, 1 Reportedly Vaccinated
  • Affected Equine In 10 Of Kentucky's 120 Counties 2 Bourbon, 1 Franklin, 1 Garrard, 1 Henderson, 2 Henry, 1 Laurel, 1 Metcalfe, 1 Scott, 1 Shelby, 1 Warren County, 1 Madison
  •  

    West Nile Virus - 2011 Equine
  • 1 Confirmed Equine West Nile Case on 1 Premises
  • Animal's Disposition - 1 Alive
  • Animal's West Nile Vaccination Status - 1 Not Vaccinated
  • Affected Equine In 1 Of Kentucky's 120 Counties
  • 1 Fleming County
    Onset Week
  • Trend - Week Diagnosis Confirmed

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    Equine West Nile Virus Summary Maps
    2001 West Nile
    • 8 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 0% (8) Vaccinated
    • 75% (6) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2002 West Nile
    • 513 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 97% (496) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 27% (137) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2003 West Nile
    • 102 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 94% (96) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 34% (35) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2004 West Nile
    • 8 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 100% (8) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 50% (4) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2005 West Nile
    • 9 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 100% (9)Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 33% (3) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2006 West Nile
    • 18 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 100% (18) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 44% (8) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2007 West Nile
    • 6 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 100% (6) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 33% (2) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2008 Equine Cases
    • 5 Equine West Nile
    • 80% (4) Not Vaccianated within Previous 12 months
    • 20% (1) Vaccination Status Unknown
    • 0% Mortality
    • 1 EEE Confirmed - Not Vaccinated* -
      Deceased *Vaccinated EEE ~72hrs
      prior to onset
    2009 Equine West Nile Cases
    • 8 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 87.5% (7)Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 12.5% (1) Vaccination Status Unknown
    • 12.5% Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2010 Equine WNV
    • 6 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 100% (6) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 50% (3) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine
    2011 Equine WNV Map
    • 1Confirmed Equine West Nile Case
    • 100% (1) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    • 0.0% Mortality Rate of Affected Equine

    2012 West Nile Virus

    • 13 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 9 Not Vaccinated, 3 Partially Vaccinated, 1 Reportedly Vaccinated
    • 54% Mortality Rate of Affected Equine

    2013 Equine West Nile and EEE Map

    12 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases

    100% (12) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months
    83% (10) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine

    Note: 2 EEE , Not Vacc, Both Expired

    2014 Equine West Nile

    • 4 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 75% (3) Not Vaccinated within previous 12 months (1 Unknown Status)
    • 75% (4) Mortality Rate of Affected Equine

     

    2015 Equine West Nile Cases

    8 Equine Confirmed West Nile Cases

    100% (7) Not Vacc and (1) not thought to be vacc w/in prev 12mon
    100% (8) Reported as surviving

     
    • 2001-2015 Cumulative WNv Analysis
    • 721 Confirmed Equine West Nile Cases
    • 95.98% (692) Not Adequately Vaccinated*
    • 30.3% (219) Case Mortality Rate**

      *Not-vaccinated during 12mo period preceding onset
      or received only initial vaccination (no booster)
      **Confirmed by Case Definition
    Click for a closer look at Equine West Nile Virus Summary Maps

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    Equine Infectious Anemia

    September 11, 2015

    Kentucky Reports Four Horses in Marshall County to be EIA Positive

     

    The Kentucky Department of Agriculture (KDA) is reporting today that during the past two weeks, four (4) horses in Western Kentucky’s Marshall County have tested positive for detection of equine infectious anemia (EIA).  These are the first Kentucky horses found positive for the viral disease since 2007. The initial horse was found positive as a result of testing performed by a private veterinarian, with the remaining three (3) cases discovered through testing conducted as part of the KDA investigation. Each of the horses were confirmed positive by additional testing and have since been humanely destroyed and buried. Seven (7) additional ‘cohorts’ tested negative on the initial testing.  These seven remain under quarantine and will be periodically sampled during the next 60 days.

     

    Though the route of transmission cannot be definitively determined, iatronic transmission has not been ruled out.  The fact that one group of seven horses were commingled in a confined location the past 10 months with no evidence of transmission, minimizes chance of natural transmission having occurred.

     

    The horses testing positive are described to be pleasure riding horses that have resided on one of two farms for several years and range in age from six to twenty-one years of age. When the positive horses were evaluated by KDA, they were found to be asymptomatic and in good body condition. The older horses were all reported to have been purchased through livestock markets, and as such would have been tested negative at the time of purchase.  These pleasure horses have not regularly participated in practices that required they be routinely tested, and are defined as representing the ‘untested population’.

     

    More information about Kentucky’s EIA Surveillance and Control Program that includes annual testing stats can be found at www.kyagr.com/statevet/equine-infectious-diseases.html.

     

    The Kentucky Department of Agriculture will provide updates as new information becomes available.


    Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) is an infectious viral disease affecting members of the horse family - for more information on this disease, please refer to the USDA EIA FACTSHEET.

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    History and Guidelines of Program
    In 1974 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture implemented a program to determine the occurrence of Equine Infectious Anemia (EIA) among Kentucky's equine population. Testing conducted during the late 1970's and into the 1980's annually identified between 120 and 150 animals as affected with EIA.During the mid 80's and throughout the 90's an increased amount of attention was placed on stopping the spread of EIA amongst Kentucky's equine population. Today in excess of 100,000 samples are tested annually with fewer than 5 animals being identified as affected with EIA. Late in 2002 the Kentucky Department of Agriculture for the first time since its' inception amended the EIA Testing requirement from six (6) months to twelve (12) months for equine being offered for sale or changing ownership. FOR THE PURPOSE OF MEETING STATE TESTING REQUIREMENTS THE KENTUCKY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REQUIRES THAT THE ANIMALS BE TESTED USING AN OFFICIAL TEST METHOD CONDUCTED BY A LABORATORY APPROVED BY THE USDA TO CONDUCT EIA TESTING.

    Official Tests
    The Kentucky State Board of Agriculture recognizes both the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and the ELISA as official tests. When time permits, we encourage the use of the AGID test. Though not often, we have on occasion seen instances of "false positives" being reported when using the ELISA test. In addition the ELISA tests are not always recognized by some states as "official" and are not recognized as "official" tests for the purpose of exporting animals from the United States. In the event that an ELISA test is used for the interstate movement of an animal, we would encourage you to contact the state of destination to insure that the test is recognized.

    Sale and Exhibition
    (1) Sale. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for sale, traded, given away, leased, or moved for the purpose of change of ownership shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months. Equine which are offered for sale at approved auction markets without proof of a negative test for EIA within the previous twelve (12) months shall have a blood sample drawn at the market by the approved market veterinarian at the seller's expense.

    (2) Exhibition. All horses and other equidae, except un-weaned foals accompanied by their dam, offered for exhibition (i.e., entry into fairgrounds, livestock show grounds, public boarding stables, trail rides, racing, etc.) shall be negative to an AGID test or other USDA approved test for equine infectious anemia within the previous twelve (12) months.

    Kentucky Annual Testing Statistics
    Annual EIA Testing In KY Testing Trends
    YEAR No Test POS ANIMAL Infect
    1991 63,650 32 0.0503%
    1992 65,634 35 0.0533%
    1993 56,876 31 0.0545%
    1994 70,897 17 0.0240%
    1995 75,997 20 0.0263%
    1996 7,5912 9 0.0119%
    1997 79,291 11 0.0139%
    1998 88,149 9 0.0124%
    1999 97,864 2 0.0020%
    2000 102,453 6 0.0058%
    2001 108,351 4 0.0037%
    2002 110,971 1 0.0009%
    2003 108,883 1 0.0009%
    2004 118,692 2 0.0017%
    2005 121,813 0 0.0000%
    2006 127,756 0 0.0000%
    2007 128,912 2 0.0016%
    2008 115,754 0 0.0000%
    2009 95,494 0 0.0000%
    2010 95,384 0 0.0000%
    2011 86,903 0 0.0000%
    2012 88,686 0 0.0000%
    2013 77,001 0 0.0000%
    2014 74,782 0 0.0000%
    2015 73,739 4 0.0054%

    Last Updated: 2/01/2016

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    2013 Kentucky Testing Summary

    2015 Monthly Testing

    MONTH
    Total
    Tests
    Private Tests
    Surveillance Tests
    JAN
    4199
    4129
    223
    FEB
    4663
    2724
    198
    MAR
    11362
    10570
    113
    APR
    11247
    10866
    285
    MAY
    7038
    6886
    295
    JUN
    5253
    4941
    266
    JUL
    7010
    7131
    237
    AUG*
    6097
    6397
    295
    SEP**
    7588
    7095
    252
    OCT
    4202
    3909
    266
    NOV
    3287
    3535
    419
    DEC
    2836
    2502
    205
    TOTAL
    74782
    70,685
    3,054
    * 1 Positive Horse through private testing
    ** 3 Positive horses identified (exposed to July Horse)
    through epidemiology testing

     

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    Equine Viral Arteritis

    HISTORY
    During the spring of 1984 a virus identified by the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science as Equine Arteritis Virus was threatening Kentucky's thoroughbred population. As a result of the continued spread of the virus amongst Central Kentucky's thoroughbred farms, all breeding of thoroughbred horses was ordered stopped during the early summer months by The Kentucky Department of Agriculture.

    The Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the University of Kentucky's Department of Veterinary Science, worked throughout the fall and winter to determine the extent of the recent outbreak. Prior to the 1985 breeding season all thoroughbred stallions were tested under the supervision of the Department. All stallions found to be positive to the serology test were quarantined while additional testing was conducted to determine if they in fact were carrier's of the arteritis virus.

    After a short delay, non-affected stallions were permitted to begin breeding in 1985. Stallions which were not vaccinated against the virus were monitored by serology testing every 14 days throughout the course of the breeding season to insure that the virus was not being spread. Stallions which were found to be shedding arteritis virus were permitted to return to breeding midway through the '85 breeding season. These stallions were heavily regulated by the Department of Agriculture to insure that they were bred only to qualified mares which were approved to be bred by the State Veterinarian's Office while following a stringent post breeding protocol consisting of isolation and quarantine.

    Today there are no known thoroughbred shedding stallions standing at stud in Kentucky. The Department of Agriculture requires that all thoroughbred stallions standing at stud in Kentucky be vaccinated annually against Equine Arteritis Virus. Stallions which are standing their first season in Kentucky are required to be tested prior to vaccination in order to determine that they are not affected with the arteritis virus. As of today the only commercially approved vaccine for use is manufactured by Fort Dodge Laboratories and is called ARVAC?.

    The Kentucky Department of Agriculture, working cooperatively with the Jockey Club maintains a stallion roster to insure that all stallions standing in Kentucky are properly vaccinated.
    KY's EVA Regulation

    Click for Statistics
    Equine Viral Arteritis Thoroughbred Stallions
    Standing at Stud in Kentucky
    EVAVaccinations - Thoroughbred Stallion Roster
    Last Updated 2/01/2016
    Year
    Standing
    Year Standing    

    1990
    1991
    1992
    1993
    1994
    1995
    1996
    1997
    1998
    1999
    2000
    2001
    2002
    2003
    2004

    521
    491
    489
    441
    393
    399
    390
    422
    425
    435
    404
    403
    373
    354
    333

    2005
    2006
    2007
    2008
    2009
    2010
    2011
    2012
    2013
    2014
    2015

    345
    356
    337
    340
    326
    301
    260
    242
    239
    252
    244

       

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    2013 Occurrences of Equine Herpes Virus Type-1
    Kentucky's Perspective and Position Updated: March 7, 2013

    Equine Herpes Virus Type 1 (EHV-1) is described to be a highly contagious pathogen that is ubiquitous in horse populations throughout the world. Infections in horses can result in a variety of ailments that include respiratory disease, abortions, neonatal deaths and the neurologic disease termed Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Recently, alerts of Equine Herpes Myeloencephalopathy being diagnosed in multiple states have been issued. States having cases of EHM diagnosed in recent months include California, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, Tennessee and Utah. Horses of different breeds and representing vastly different disciplines and activity have been affected.

    The apparent increased frequency of disease and severity of symptoms being seen has lead Kentucky State Veterinarian Robert Stout to conclude extra precaution needs to be initiated and implemented to help mitigate the associated risk. We are directing Kentucky facility managers and the managers of shows/exhibitions planned to be held in Kentucky to immediately review their biosecurity practices and if needed elevate their biosecurity plan to minimize opportunity of horses having direct or indirect contact with one another. Indirect contact would include common water and feed sources as well as shared equipment and common areas. The goal of a biosecurity plan is to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among individuals. The components of a successful program will include cooperation of management, facility layout, decontamination, and when applicable immunization. Each of these factors directly affects the success or failure of the program. A copy of the American Association of Equine Practitioners biosecurity guidelines and EHV resources can be found at www.aaep.org/ehv_resources.htm. Our office is happy to assist facilities, show management and event veterinarians in evaluating their individual plans and when a need is identified, assist in adapting the plans.

    As an additional preventive measure, we encourage horsemen to consult their veterinarians and after evaluating their animal's vaccination status consider if there is need or benefit to stimulating an immune response by vaccinating against EHV-1. We acknowledge the available vaccines' labels make no claim to prevent neurologic disease; but based on our experience managing outbreaks of this disease, and in consultation with infectious disease experts and research scientist, we continue to be of the opinion the vaccine does have a meaningful level of efficacy and may aide in reducing the impact of a disease incident.

    In response to the identified increased risk, we have and will continue to operate with elevated regulatory surveillance and equine health inspection activity at events in Kentucky. Exhibitors can expedite their passage through our inspection points by having their health documents organized and horses loaded in a manner that will allow visual inspection. In addition to the surveillance and inspection activity we will be working closely with show managers and veterinarians to insure immediate notification and quick response to any suspected communicable disease.